3D Assembly of Cryo(Bio)Printed Modular Units for Shelf-Ready Scalable Tissue Fabrication

Zeyu Luo, Liming Lian, Thiago Stocco, Jie Guo, Xuan Mei, Ling Cai, Syed Muntazir Andrabi, Yajuan Su, Guosheng Tang, Hossein Ravanbakhsh, Wanlu Li, Mian Wang, Xiao Kuang, Carlos Ezio Garciamendez-Mijares, Di Wang, Zongliang Wang, Junlong Liao, Maobin Xie, Jingwei Xie, Heemin KangAnderson Oliveira Lobo, Zongke Zhou, Yu Shrike Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The human body relies on modular assembly for realizing its functions. Here the development of a bioinspired cryo(bio)printing-based method is reported to fabricate shelf-ready, storable modular scaffolds toward scalable tissue assembly. The mechanism lies in that the cryo(bio)printed modular scaffolds are first assembled into the final hierarchy in their frozen state, which can be subsequently bonded together into an integral piece by contacting each other at the interface during the melting and photocrosslinking processes. This method not only addresses the height limitation associated with the recently developed cryo(bio)printing technology by enabling scalable tissue fabrication through modular assembly, but also allows generating tissue constructs of same or dissimilar materials to fit defects of different scales and shapes, thus providing more precision treatment. Cellular evaluations on the cryobioprinted modular hydrogels validate cell viability, spreading, and differentiation following assembly. The chick ex ovo and rat subcutaneous implantation assays further confirm the potential of direct in vivo assembly using shelf-ready cryobioprinted modular tissue constructs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2309173
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan 22

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • 3D printing
  • assembly
  • bioprinting
  • modular
  • tissue engineering
  • tissue model engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrochemistry


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