3D-printed versatile biliary stents with nanoengineered surface for anti-hyperplasia and antibiofilm formation

Hyun Lee, Dong Sung Won, Sinwoo Park, Yubeen Park, Ji Won Kim, Ginam Han, Yuhyun Na, Min Ho Kang, Seok Beom Kim, Heemin Kang, Jun Kyu Park, Tae Sik Jang, Sang Jin Lee, Su A. Park, Sang Soo Lee, Jung Hoon Park, Hyun Do Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biliary strictures are characterized by the narrowing of the bile duct lumen, usually caused by surgical biliary injury, cancer, inflammation, and scarring from gallstones. Endoscopic stent placement is a well-established method for the management of biliary strictures. However, maintaining optimal mechanical properties of stents and designing surfaces that can prevent stent-induced tissue hyperplasia and biofilm formation are challenges in the fabrication of biodegradable biliary stents (BBSs) for customized treatment. This study proposes a novel approach to fabricating functionalized polymer BBSs with nanoengineered surfaces using 3D printing. The 3D printed stents, fabricated from bioactive silica poly(ε-carprolactone) (PCL) via a sol–gel method, exhibited tunable mechanical properties suitable for supporting the bile duct while ensuring biocompatibility. Furthermore, a nanoengineered surface layer was successfully created on a sirolimus (SRL)-coated functionalized PCL (fPCL) stent using Zn ion sputtering-based plasma immersion ion implantation (S-PIII) treatment to enhance the performance of the stent. The nanoengineered surface of the SRL-coated fPCL stent effectively reduced bacterial responses and remarkably inhibited fibroblast proliferation and initial burst release of SRL in vitro systems. The physicochemical properties and biological behaviors, including in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo therapeutic efficacy in the rabbit bile duct, of the Zn-SRL@fPCL stent demonstrated its potential as a versatile platform for clinical applications in bile duct tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-190
Number of pages19
JournalBioactive Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jul

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors


  • 3D printing
  • Anti-hyperplasia
  • Antibiofilm formation
  • Biodegradable biliary stent
  • Functionalized polymer
  • Zinc ion implantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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