4,4′-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) inhibit myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts

Jonggun Kim, Min Young Park, Yoo Kim, Kyong Sup Yoon, John Marshall Clark, Yeonhwa Park, Kwang Youn Whang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Most countries have banned the use of 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, owing to its extremely high lipophilic characteristics, DDT and its metabolite 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are ubiquitous in the environment and in many types of food. The positive correlation between exposure to insecticides, including DDT and DDE, and weight gain, resulting in impaired energy metabolism in offspring following perinatal DDT and DDE exposure, was previously reported. Therefore the influence of DDT and DDE on myogenesis using C2C12 myoblasts was investigated in this study. RESULTS: DDT and DDE decreased myotube formation dose- and time-dependently. Among myogenic regulatory factors, DDT and DDE mainly decreased MyoD1 and Myf5 expression. DDT and DDE treatment also altered Myostatin expression, phosphorylation of protein kinase B, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, forkhead box O protein 3 and mammalian target of rapamycin, resulting in attenuation of myotube formation. CONCLUSION: These results may have significant implications for understanding the effects of developmental exposure of DDT and DDE on myogenesis and development of obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5176-5185
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
There are no conflicts of interest associated with the authors of this manuscript. Jonggun Kim was supported by a Korea University grant. Yoo Kim was in part supported by the Charm Sciences scholarship from the Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry


  • AKT
  • DDE
  • DDT
  • MyoD1
  • mTOR
  • myogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


Dive into the research topics of '4,4′-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) inhibit myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this