## Abstract

An frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar transceiver (TRX) chip operating near 140 GHz has been developed based on a 65-nm CMOS technology, subsequently packaged with a pair of silicon lenses for optimal beam alignment. The TRX consists of a wideband local oscillator (LO) chain, a high-power transmitter (TX), and a low-noise receiver (RX). The design procedures for sub-block circuits as well as integrated TX and RX are described in detail along with their measured performances. With the integrated single-chip TRX, a TX output power of 9.5 mW with a corresponding effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 14 dBm was achieved along with a noise figure (NF) of 9.9 dB near 140 GHz. The chip with a size of 2930 <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\times$</tex-math> </inline-formula> 830 <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\mu$</tex-math> </inline-formula>m<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$^{2}$</tex-math> </inline-formula> consumed 350 mW of dc power. A dual-lens packaging technique has been proposed and successfully applied to the fabricated TRX chip, in which an individual dedicated lens is assigned for each of the TX and RX on-chip antennas, leading to significantly improved beam alignment as well as TX-RX isolation. A ranging experiment has been performed with the packaged radar TRX module with a chirp bandwidth of 32 GHz (128–160 GHz), which exhibited a range resolution of around 10 mm. For the chirp generation, a very short modulation period of 6.0 <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$\mu$</tex-math> </inline-formula>s was adopted, which would help suppress the effect of the low-frequency noise especially for CMOS-based systems.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1-17 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Accepted/In press - 2024 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:IEEE

## Keywords

- <inline-formula xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$D$</tex-math> </inline-formula>-band (110–170 GHz)
- Antenna radiation patterns
- Bandwidth
- bistatic radar
- Chirp
- CMOS integrated circuits
- Lenses
- millimeter wave radar
- Radar
- Radar antennas
- Silicon
- System-on-chip

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Radiation
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering