A 4×4 array module of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors for gamma-ray imaging spectrometers

A. E. Bolotnikov, G. S. Camarda, G. De Geronimo, J. Fried, D. Hodges, A. Hossain, K. Kim, G. Mahler, L. Ocampo Giraldo, E. Vernon, G. Yang, R. B. James

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Arrays of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors offer an economical approach to making high efficiency and high energy resolution gamma cameras for spectroscopy and imaging of radioactive sources. There are many application areas for such instruments including gamma-rays astronomy, medical and industrial imaging, nonproliferation and nuclear safeguards. Here we present the test results from a 4×4 array module coupled to the front-end ASIC. The array houses 16 detectors made of 6×6×20 mm3 CZT crystals. Each crystal is encapsulated inside an ultrathin polyester shell and furnished with four 5-mm-wide charge-sensing pads placed near the anode on each side of the detector. The pad's signals are used to measure X–Y coordinates while the cathode signals give the interaction depths (Z coordinates). Combined together the signals provide 3D position information of the interaction points which can be used to correct the detector response non-uniformity. This allows developers to use standard grade (unselected) CZT crystals while retaining high spectroscopic performance comparable with that of the H3D pixelated detectors. The array's design provides flexibility to replace individual detectors and extend their sizes, potentially increasing upwards of 4 cm in height. We started development of position-sensitive VFG detectors several years ago and today this technology has reached a high-maturity level and is ready to use in practical applications.

Bibliographical note

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© 2018


  • 3D charge-loss correction
  • CdZnTe
  • CdZnTe detectors
  • Position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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