Background and objective: Recent unfolding based compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) methods only reinterpret conventional CS-MRI optimization algorithms and, consequently, inherit the weaknesses of the alternating optimization strategy. In order to avoid the structural complexity of the alternating optimization strategy and achieve better reconstruction performance, we propose to directly optimize the ℓ1 regularized convex optimization problem using a deep learning approach. Method: In order to achieve direct optimization, a system of equations solving the ℓ1 regularized optimization problem is constructed from the optimality conditions of a novel primal-dual form proposed for the effective training of the sparsifying transform. The optimal solution is obtained by a cascade of unfolding networks of the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm trained to minimize the mean element-wise absolute difference (ℓ1 loss) between the terminal output and ground truth image in an end-to-end manner. The performance of the proposed method was compared with that of U-Net, PD-Net, ISTA-Net+, and the recently proposed projection-based cascaded U-Net, using single-coil knee MR images of the fastMRI dataset. Results: In our experiment, the proposed network outperformed existing unfolding-based networks and the complex version of U-Net in several subsampling scenarios. In particular, when using the random Cartesian subsampling mask with 25 % sampling rate, the proposed model outperformed PD-Net by 0.76 dB, ISTA-Net+ by 0.43 dB, and U-Net by 1.21 dB on the positron density without suppression (PD) dataset in term of peak signal to noise ratio. In comparison with the projection-based cascade U-Net, the proposed algorithm achieved approximately the same performance when the sampling rate was 25% with only 1.62% number of network parameters at the cost of a longer reconstruction time (approximately twice). Conclusion: A cascade of unfolding networks of the PCG algorithm was proposed to directly optimize the ℓ1 regularized CS-MRI optimization problem. The proposed network achieved improved reconstruction performance compared with U-Net, PD-Net, and ISTA-Net+, and achieved approximately the same performance as the projection-based cascaded U-Net while using significantly fewer network parameters.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partly supported by Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation(IITP) grant funded by the Korea government( MSIT ) (No. 2019-0-00079 , Artificial Intelligence Graduate School Program(Korea University)) and the BK21 four program through the National Research Foundation ( NRF ) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Compressed sensing
- Deep learning
- Magnetic resonance imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Informatics
- Computer Science Applications