A Meta-Heuristic Optimization Based Less Imperceptible Adversarial Attack on Gait Based Surveillance Systems

Muazzam Maqsood, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Irfan Mehmood, Eenjun Hwang, Seungmin Rho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In today's digital realm, global safety concerns have given rise to intelligent surveillance technologies. Currently, Gait-based surveillance systems have lately got increasing attention and are widely used because they employed human distinctive and behavioral characteristics as well as recognize them without their cooperation. They play a vital role in smart video monitoring systems and have a broad array of applications, especially in public security applications. Gait recognition is the process of validating a person looking at the way they walk. Behind these surveillance systems, superior computer vision-based deep learning algorithms are deployed for the effective identification of individuals. On the other hand, the vulnerable nature of these algorithms is the main factor for potential security threats in these surveillance systems. Different researchers design several kinds of adversarial attacks for different computer vision domains to exploit their vulnerabilities. In most of these attacks, the resulting adversarial noise in form of either patches or pixels is apparent and clearly identifiable by the human naked eye. From this line of research, this study presents a new variant of the attack, to highlight the vulnerability of gait recognition systems. The adversarial noise in the form of one pixel is added to that location of Gait energy images (GEI) which are less imperceptible by humans. More specifically, this can be accomplished using the Grey wolf optimization (GWO) method, which takes a GEI image and a calculated perturbation as input and starts working to find the optimum location on a given GEI image. This optimum candidate/location is the one where the texture is not excessively affected when it is disrupted by computed perturbation, and as a result, the attack is less perceptible. Moreover, the study investigates that CNN’s based gait recognition systems encountered severe potential threats even when the noise is less imperceptible by the human naked eye.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-151
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Signal Processing Systems
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Adversarial attack
  • Deep learning
  • Gait recognition
  • Meta-Heuristic optimization
  • Security surveillance systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Hardware and Architecture


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