A Multivalent Vaccine Based on Ferritin Nanocage Elicits Potent Protective Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Mutations

Seong A. Kim, Seohyun Kim, Gi Beom Kim, Jiyoung Goo, Nayeon Kim, Yeram Lee, Gi Hoon Nam, Seungho Lim, Taeerk Kim, Ki Hwan Chang, Tae Gyu Lee, In San Kim, Eun Jung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a global public crisis and heavily affected personal lives, healthcare systems, and global economies. Virus variants are continuously emerging, and, thus, the pandemic has been ongoing for over two years. Vaccines were rapidly developed based on the original SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) to build immunity against the coronavirus disease. However, they had a very low effect on the virus’ variants due to their low cross-reactivity. In this study, a multivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was developed using ferritin nanocages, which display the spike protein from the Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.351, or B.1.429 SARS-CoV-2 on their surfaces. We show that the mixture of three SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-displaying nanocages elicits CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B-cell immunity successfully in vivo. Furthermore, they generate a more consistent antibody response against the B.1.351 and B.1.429 variants than a monovalent vaccine. This leads us to believe that the proposed ferritin-nanocage-based multivalent vaccine platform will provide strong protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs).

Original languageEnglish
Article number6123
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by LabGenomics Corporation and supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea government (NRF-2017R1A3B1023418 and NRF-2021R1C1C1008217).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • ferritin
  • multivalent vaccine
  • protein nanocage
  • variants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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