A new view on biodynamic feedthrough analysis: Unifying the effects on forces and positions

Joost Venrooij, Mark Mulder, David A. Abbink, Marinus M. Van Paassen, Frans C.T. Van Der Helm, Heinrich H. Bülthoff, Max Mulder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


When performing a manual control task, vehicle accelerations can cause involuntary limb motions, which can result in unintentional control inputs. This phenomenon is called biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT). In the past decades, many studies into BDFT have been performed, but its fundamentals are still only poorly understood. What has become clear, though, is that BDFT is a highly complex process, and its occurrence is influenced by many different factors. A particularly challenging topic in BDFT research is the role of the human operator, which is not only a very complex but also a highly adaptive system. In literature, two different ways of measuring and analyzing BDFT are reported. One considers the transfer of accelerations to involuntary forces applied to the control device (CD); the other considers the transfer of accelerations to involuntary CD deflections or positions. The goal of this paper is to describe an approach to unify these two methods. It will be shown how the results of the two methods relate and how this knowledge may aid in understanding BDFT better as a whole. The approach presented is based on the notion that BDFT dynamics can be described by the combination of two transfer dynamics: 1) the transfer dynamics from body accelerations to involuntary forces and 2) the transfer dynamics from forces to CD deflections. The approach was validated using experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-142
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Feb


  • Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT)
  • Force disturbance feedthrough (FDFT)
  • Manual control
  • Neuromuscular admittance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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