A normative study of lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse elderly population

Bong Jo Kim, Cheol Soon Lee, Byoung Hoon Oh, Chang Hyung Hong, Kang Soo Lee, Sang Joon Son, Changsu Han, Moon Ho Park, Hyun Ghang Jeong, Tae Hui Kim, Joon Hyuk Park, Ki Woong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Objective Lexical fuency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the infuences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fuency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. Methods We administered the lexical verbal fuency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. Results In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had signifcant efects on LVFT scores (p<0.001), but gender did not (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506, p>0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratifed by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). Conclusion The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fuency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-351
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Investigation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec
Externally publishedYes


  • Age
  • Education
  • Elders
  • Korean
  • Lexical verbal fuency
  • Normative data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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