A Novel Anthropometric Parameter, Weight-Adjusted Waist Index Represents Sarcopenic Obesity in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Min Jeong Park, Soon Young Hwang, Nam Hoon Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: As the metabolic significance of sarcopenic obesity (SO) is revealed, finding an appropriate index to detect SO is important, especially for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with accompanying metabolic dysfunction. Methods: Participants (n= 515) from the Korea Guro Diabetes Program were included to compare how well waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist height ratio (WHtR), and the weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) predict SO in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. Sarcopenia was defined based on guidelines from the 2019 Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia as both low muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle [ASM]/height2 <7.0 kg/m2 for men, <5.4 kg/m2 for women) and strength (handgrip strength <28.0 kg for men, <18.0 kg for women) and/or reduced physical performance (gait speed <1.0 m/sec). Obesity was defined as a WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥85 cm in women. The WHR, WHtR, and WWI were calculated by dividing the WC by the hip circumference, height, and √ weight, respectively. Results: The WC, WHR, and WHtR correlated positively with the fat and muscle mass represented by truncal fat amount (TFA) and ASM, whereas the WWI was proportional to the TFA and inversely related to ASM. Of the four indices, the WWI showed the highest area under the receiver operative characteristic curve for SO. The WWI also exhibited a positive correlation with albuminuria and the mean brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, especially in patients aged ≥65 years. Conclusion: The WWI is the preferable anthropometric index for predicting SO in T2DM patients, and it might be a proper index for predicting cardiometabolic risk factors in elderly people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-140
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun 30

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a Korea Medical Device Development Fund grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science and ICT, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) (Project Number: 9991007469, KMDF_PR_20200901_0233) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea (2021R1A2C2008792).

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Korean Society for the Study of Obesity.


  • Anthropometric index
  • Sarcopenic obesity
  • Type2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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