A resilient MXene/CNT nano-accordion framework for anode-free sodium-metal batteries with exceptional cyclic stability

Syam Kandula, Eunji Kim, Chi Won Ahn, Jinwoo Lee, Bongjun Yeom, Seung Woo Lee, Jinhan Cho, Hyung Kyu Lim, Yonghee Lee, Jeong Gon Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Anode-free sodium-metal batteries are considered one of the most promising alternatives for developing high-end batteries due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and high natural abundance. However, they have severe drawbacks in the form of inferior long-term cyclic stability. We engineered mechanically resilient MXene/CNT nano-accordion frameworks (NAFs) to host significant Na without dendrite development, even at high currents. The microcellular structures of MXene/CNT-NAFs possess numerous micro-sized pores and sodium nucleation sites. The synergetic effects of strong adhesion and charge transfer between MXene and CNT reduce overpotential during plating/stripping and facilitate uniform Na deposition. Resilient nano-accordion structures are compressed by capillary of Na nucleation during plating and expand during stripping, allowing long-term plating/stripping with little volume change. These benefits allow the MXene/CNT-NAFs/Na asymmetric cell to maintain its average CE at 99.7 % with capacities of 1.0 mAh⋅cm2 at 1.0 mA⋅cm2 for 900 h. Furthermore, MXene/CNT-NAFs symmetric cell exhibits a very low overpotential of 12.0 mV after 1,500 h with a capacity of 3.0 mAh⋅cm2 at 3.0 mA⋅cm2 and stores high capacities of 20.0 mAh⋅cm2 at 5.0 mA⋅cm2 for 1,200 h. The anode-free MXene/CNT-NAFs//Na3V2(PO4)3@C full-cell demonstrates exceptional long-term cyclic stability over 5,000 cycles at 5.0 C and 10.0 C without cell failure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103024
JournalEnergy Storage Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • Anode-free battery
  • Anode-free sodium-metal batteries
  • Energy storage
  • MXene
  • Plating/stripping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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