As human beings have been consistently exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) derived from various products, the intake of BPS/BPA to humans has been extensively studied. However, using conventional biological matrices such as urine, blood, or dissected skin to detect BPS/BPA in the human body system requires longer exposure time to them, hardly defines the pollutant source of the accumulated BPS/BPA, and is often invasive. Herein, our new approach i.e. fingerprint analysis quantitatively confirms the transfer of BPS/BPA from receipts (specific pollution source) to human skin only within receipt-handling of “20 s”. When receipts (fingertip region size; ~1 cm2) containing 100–300 μg of BPS or BPA are handled, 20–40 μg fingerprint-1 of BPS or BPA is transferred to human skin (fingertip). This transferred amount of BPS/BPA can still be toxic according to the toxicity test using water fleas. As a visual evidence, a fingerprint map that matches the distribution of the absorbed BPS/BPA is developed using a mass spectrometry imaging tool. This is the first study to analyze fingerprints to determine the incorporation mechanism of emerging pollutants. This study provides an efficient and non-invasive environmental forensic tool to analyze amounts and sources of hazardous substances.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the KRICT Core Project and the Bio-Industrial Technology Development Program ( 20008628 ) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MI, Repulic of Korea).
© 2021 The Authors
- Bisphenol derivatives
- Emerging contaminants
- Environmental forensics
- Toxicity test of water flea
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis