A simulation study of a C-shaped in-beam PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

Su Jung An, Cheol Ha Beak, Kisung Lee, Yong Hyun Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The application of hadrons such as carbon ions is being developed for the treatment of cancer. The effectiveness of such a technique is due to the eligibility of charged particles in delivering most of their energy near the end of the range, called the Bragg peak. However, accurate verification of dose delivery is required since misalignment of the hadron beam can cause serious damage to normal tissue. PET scanners can be utilized to track the carbon beam to the tumor by imaging the trail of the hadron-induced positron emitters in the irradiated volume. In this study, we designed and evaluated (through Monte Carlo simulations) an in-beam PET scanner for monitoring patient dose in carbon beam therapy. A C-shaped PET and a partial-ring PET were designed to avoid interference between the PET detectors and the therapeutic carbon beam delivery. Their performance was compared with that of a full-ring PET scanner. The C-shaped, partial-ring, and full-ring scanners consisted of 14, 12, and 16 detector modules, respectively, with a 30.2 cm inner diameter for brain imaging. Each detector module was composed of a 13×13 array of 4.0 mm×4.0 mm×20.0 mm LYSO crystals and four round 25.4 mm diameter PMTs. To estimate the production yield of positron emitters such as 10C, 11C, and 15O, a cylindrical PMMA phantom (diameter, 20 cm; thickness, 20 cm) was irradiated with 170, 290, and 350 AMeV 12C beams using the GATE code. Phantom images of the three types of scanner were evaluated by comparing the longitudinal profile of the positron emitters, measured along the carbon beam as it passed a simulated positron emitter distribution. The results demonstrated that the development of a C-shaped PET scanner to characterize carbon dose distribution for therapy planning is feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 11

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center (HIMAC), Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) , 2011K000567 .


  • GATE
  • Hadron therapy
  • In-beam PET
  • Range verification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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