A Survey of Hwa-Byungin Middle-Age Korean Women

Young Joo Park, Hesook Suzie Kim, Hyun Cheol Kang, Jong Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Hwa-Byung (HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that refers to insidious, long-standing, serious discontent that is projected into the body and is manifested by numerous symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, panic, palpitations, dyspnea, and others. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of HB in Korean women, validate the predominant symptoms of HB, and validate the related sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors that differentiate women with HB from those without HB. A total of 2,807 women ages 41 to 65 years were recruited from seven metropolitan areas and six provinces in Korea. The prevalence rate of women who designated themselves as having experienced HB was 4.95%. The rates were higher in women of low socioeconomic status, living in rural areas, among the divorced or separated, smokers, and drinkers. A set of 31 HB symptoms differentiated the potential HB women from the non-HB women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-122
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Apr

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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