A two-photon fluorescent probe for lipid raft imaging: C-laurdan

Hwan Myung Kim, Hyo Jung Choo, Soon Young Jung, Young Gyu Ko, Won Hwa Park, Seung Joon Jeon, Chul Hoon Kim, Taiha Joo, Bong Rae Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

201 Citations (Scopus)


The lipid-rafts hypothesis proposes that naturally occurring lipid aggregates exist in the plane of membrane that are involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, and membrane transport. To understand their roles in cell biology, a direct visualization of such domains in living cells is essential. For this purpose, 6-dodecanoyl-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene (laurdan), a membrane probe that is sensitive to the polarity of the membrane, has often been used. We have synthesized and characterized 6-dodecanoyl-2-[N- methyl-N-(carboxymethyl)amino]naphthalene (C-laurdan), which has the advantages of greater sensitivity to the membrane polarity, a brighter two-photon fluorescence image, and reflecting the cell environment more accurately than laurdan. Lipid rafts can be visualized by two-photon microscopy by using C-laurdan as a probe. Our results show that the lipid rafts cover 38% of the cell surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553-559
Number of pages7
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Mar 26


  • C-laurdan
  • Fluorescent probes
  • Lipid rafts
  • Membranes
  • Two-photon microscopy
  • Vesicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry


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