Accommodative and tonic convergence and anatomical contracture in partially accommodative and non-accommodative esotropia

Tae Eun Lee, Seung Hyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To compare accommodative convergence, tonic convergence, and anatomical contracture quantitatively in partially accommodative esotropia vs non-accommodative esotropia. Methods: Patients with an esotropia who had undergone surgery under general anaesthesia were evaluated. They were divided into two groups: 17 patients had partially accommodative esotropia and 15 patients had non-accommodative esotropia (basic esotropia). We supposed that the total esodeviation (Eso) was composed of three components: accommodative convergence (AC), tonic convergence (TC), and anatomical contracture (AnC). We measured the preoperative angle of esodeviation with (AC) or without glasses (Eso) in awakening state at 1/3m and the preoperative esodeviation under general anaesthesia (AnC). TC was calculated by the formula TC=EsoD-AC-AnC. Results: The average ratios of TC/Eso, AC/Eso and AnC/Eso were 46%, 32%, and 22%, respectively in the partially accommodative esotrope group, and 28%, 1%, and 71%, respectively in the non-accommodative esotropes. These differences were significant for AC/Eso and AnC/Eso (p<0.0001) but not for TC/Eso (p=0.15). Conclusions: Among the three components, tonic convergence was responsible for a larger portion of esodeviation than anatomical contracture in partially accommodative esotropia, whereas anatomical contracture played a greater role in the non-accommodative esotropia group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-538
Number of pages4
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov
Externally publishedYes


  • Accommodative
  • Anatomical contracture
  • Esotropia
  • Strabismus surgery
  • Tonic convergence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry
  • Sensory Systems


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