Acetylacetone-TiO2 Promoted Large Area Compatible Cascade Electron Transport Bilayer for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

Hyong Joon Lee, Jin Kyoung Park, Jin Hyuck Heo, Sang Hyuk Im

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In designing efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the selection of suitable electron transport layers (ETLs) is critical to the final device performance as they determine the driving force for selective charge extraction. SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based ETLs have been a popular choice for PSCs due to superior electron mobility, but their relatively deep-lying conduction band energy levels (ECB) result in substantial potential loss. Meanwhile, TiO2 NPs establish favorable band alignment owing to shallower ECB, but their low intrinsic mobility and abundant surface trap sites impede the final performance. For this reason, constructing a cascaded bilayer ETL is highly desirable for efficient PSCs, as it can rearrange energy levels and exploit on advantages of an individual ETL. In this study, we prepare SnO2 NPs and acetylacetone-modified TiO2 (Acac-TiO2) NPs and implement them as bilayer SnO2/Acac-TiO2 (BST) ETL, to assemble cascaded energy band structure. SnO2 contributes to rapid charge carrier transport from high electron mobility while Acac-TiO2 minimizes band-offset and effectively suppresses interfacial recombination. Accordingly, the optimized BST ETL generates synergistic influence and delivers power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 23.14% with open-circuit voltage (VOC) reaching 1.14 V. Furthermore, the BST ETL is transferred to a large scale and the corresponding mini module demonstrates peak performance of 18.39% PCE from 25 cm2 aperture area. Finally, the BST-based mini module exhibit excellent stability, maintaining 83.1% of its initial efficiency after 1000 h under simultaneous 1 Sun light-soaking and damp heat (85 °C/RH 85%) environment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy and Environmental Materials
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Basic Science Research Program [No. 2021R1A5A6002853], [No. 2022R1A2C3004964], [No. 2022R1C1C2008126], [No. 2022M3H4A1A03074093]).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Energy & Environmental Materials published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Zhengzhou University.


  • acetylacetone
  • large area
  • perovskite
  • solar cells
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Energy (miscellaneous)


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