Acetylcholine rescues two-cell block through activation of IP3 receptors and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in an ICR mouse strain

Seong Keun Cho, Sook Young Yoon, Chang Gi Hur, Hae Young Yang, Changyong Choe, Eun Jin Kim, Jung Soo Joo, Kee Ryeon Kang, Jae Yong Park, Seong Geun Hong, Jaehee Han, Dawon Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Acetylcholine (ACh) causes early activation events in mouse oocytes, but little is known about its precise role in the early embryonic development of mice. We aimed to determine whether and how ACh is capable of rescuing two-cell block in an in vitro culture system. ACh evoked different transient Ca 2+ patterns showing a higher Ca2+ peak in the two-cell stage embryos (two-cells) than observed in mature oocytes. In early two-cells subjected to an in vitro two-cell block, xestospongin C (Xes-C), an IP3 receptor antagonist, significantly decreased the level of the ACh-induced Ca 2+ increase. The reduction in the ACh-induced Ca2+ increase by Xes-C in late two-cells was lower than that in early two-cells. Furthermore, KN62 and KN93, both CaMKII inhibitors, were found to reduce the magnitude of the ACh-induced Ca2+ increase in early two-cells. The addition of ACh to the culture medium showed an ability to rescue in vitro two-cell block. However, the addition of ACh together with both Xes-C and CaMKII inhibitors or with either inhibitor separately had no effect on the rescue of two-cell block. Long-term exposure of late two-cells to ACh decreased morula and early blastocyst development and ACh had a differential effect on early and late two-cells. These results indicate that ACh likely rescues the in vitro two-cell block through activation of IP3R- and/or CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1125-1136
Number of pages12
JournalPflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was performed with the support of “On-Site Cooperative Agriculture Research Project (Project No. 20080101-080-057-001-01-00)”, RDA, Republic of Korea, KOSEF grants (R13-2005-012-01002-0 and R01-2007-000-20746-0), KRF-2006-005-J04204 to J.S. Joo, and KOSEF/MOST to K.R. Kang (grant #: R13-2005-012-01003-0).


  • Acetylcholine
  • Calcium
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors
  • Pre-implantation embryo development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Acetylcholine rescues two-cell block through activation of IP3 receptors and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in an ICR mouse strain'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this