Despite significant advances, the therapeutic impact of photodynamic therapy is still substantially hampered by the restricted penetration depth of light and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated toxicity, which is impeded by the shorter effective half-life and radius of ROS produced during treatment. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), on the other hand, provides unrivalled benefits in deep-seated tumour ablation due to its deep penetration depth and not totally ROS-dependent toxicity, exhibiting enormous preclinical and clinical potential. In this tutorial review, we highlight imaging-guided precise SDT, which allows choosing the best treatment option and monitoring the therapy response in real-Time, as well as recent clinical trials based on SDT. Aside from that, the subtle design strategies of sonosensitizers based on tumour environment shaping and rational structure modification, as well as SDT combination treatment (chemotherapy, chemodynamic therapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, gas therapy and immunotherapy), aimed at a more effective treatment outcome, are summarized. Finally, we discussed the future of SDT for personalized cancer and other disease treatments.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 22022404, 22074050, 31960546), Wuhan Scientific and Technological projects (2019020701011441), 111 Project (No. B17019), and self-determined research funds of CCNU from the colleges, basic research and operation of MOE for the Central Universities (CCNU20QN010), supported by the Opening Fund of Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Hunan Normal University), Ministry of Education, and supported by the Open Project Program of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Guilin Medical University (GKLBCN-20190105-01). This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (CRI Project No. 2018R1A3B1052702, JSK). Amit Sharma thanks the Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India, for a prestigious DBT-Ramalingaswami fellowship (BT/RLF/Re-entry/59/2018).
Jong Seung Kim received his PhD from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, in 1993 and completed a one-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Houston. He is now a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Korea University in Seoul as a full professor.
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