In recent years, nanovaccine based on nanomaterials emerging as an advanced nanotechnology has drawn more attention for accurately enhancing anti-tumor immunotherapy. Nanovaccine loaded with antigen and immunopotentiator could stimulate antigen presenting cells (APCs) to release signals of co-stimulatory cytokines and reinvigorate the immune-killing T cell to alleviate tumor progression. The amplification of co-stimulatory markers has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of APCs towards tumor neoantigens. Furthermore, positive regulation via nanovaccine of antigen-dependent APCs with a “self-promoting” effect with more recruits of immune-killing T cells could contribute to potentiating the presentation and processing of antigen, finally improving the efficacy of immunotherapy. Of note, if the intracellular and exocellular delivery of antigen could be effectively manipulated, the well-designed nanovaccine will provide a platform for clinical therapeutic practice. In this review, we summarize the development, technical advantages and challenges of nanovaccine in the multi-stage delivery process for immune-guided therapeutic efficacy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Granted numbers 81773183 and 21705120 ), the Technology Support Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Youth Innovation (Granted numbers 2019KJM008). Appreciated for the grants from Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) StAR 2021 programma (R21393A07) and the China Scholarship Council (CSC, granted, No. 395). Greatly appreciated for the support of Prof. Sally-Ann Cryan (RCSI). This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (CRI Project Nos. 2018R1A3B1052702 and 2019M3E5D1A01068998, J.S.K.).
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Antigen delivery
- Antigen presentation processing
- Cancer immunotherapy
- Dendritic cells-targeting
- Immune activations
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Chemistry
- General Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry