Ambient Air-Processed Wide-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells with Well-Controlled Film Morphology for Four-Terminal Tandem Application

Gyeong Sun Jang, Youngwoong Kim, Young Yun Kim, Jason J. Yoo, Geunjin Kim, Nam Joong Jeon, Hae Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim, Jangwon Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as the next generation of solar cells because of the promising nature of creating tandem solar cells with Si photovoltaics. Wide-bandgap PSCs are developed to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of tandem devices. For the mass production of tandem solar cells, not only is a limitation of scalable coating a critical factor, but uncontrollable grain growth in ambient air impedes commercialization. Serious differences in morphology depending on the experimental environment are found. In the ambient air processing system, severe wrinkles and voids resulting in deteriorated photovoltaic performance are found as compared with those in N2 condition. It is suggested that humidity in the air plays a crucial role in the remaining perovskite intermediate phase and the rate of solvent evaporation during the spin-coating procedure. Herein, void- and wrinkle-free perovskite films using methyl ammonium chloride and formamide are fabricated, thus leading to efficient PSCs with a PCE of 20.6%. Furthermore, newly designed perovskite films to blade coating for large-area fabrication as well as to semitransparent PSCs for a four-terminal silicon/perovskite tandem solar cell with a PCE of 25.2% are applied.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2200252
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
G.S.J. and Y.K. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by a grant from the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Republic of Korea, and the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (20183010014470 and 20193091010490). The authors appreciate Dr. Moonyong Kim and Dr. Jae Sung Yun at the University of New South Wales with the assistance of the bottom silicon solar cell measurement.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • Si/perovskite four-terminal tandem solar cells
  • additive engineering
  • morphologies
  • semitransparent perovskite solar cells
  • voids
  • wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells
  • wrinkles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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