Amorphous thieno[3,2-b]thiophene and benzothiadiazole based copolymers for organic photovoltaics

Wonho Lee, Hyojung Cha, Yu Jin Kim, Ji Eun Jeong, Sungu Hwang, Chan Eon Park, Han Young Woo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Three types of amorphous thienothiophene (TT)-benzothiadiazole (BT) based copolymers ( PFTTBT) were synthesized by incorporating alkyl-substituted fluorene moieties as a third component in the polymer backbone. Their optical, electrochemical, morphological, and photovoltaic properties were examined by a comparison with those of a crystalline TT-BT derivative (PTTBT14). PTTBT14 was reported to have a high hole mobility (0.26 cm2/(V s)) due to the pronounced interchain ordering but poor photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.4-2.6% was reported due to excessively strong self-interactions with poor miscibility with fullerene structures. By incorporating fluorene units, the UV-vis spectra showed an increased bandgap (∼1.9 eV) with the disappearance of the packing-originated shoulder peak, and the valence band decreased compared to crystalline PTTBT14. The amorphous PFTTBT polymers showed substantially improved photovoltaic properties compared to PTTBT14, even though they showed poor hole mobility (∼10-6 cm2/(V s)) and fill factor. The optimal devices were achieved by blending with excess PC71BM (polymer:PC71BM = 1:4 by weight), showing little improvement in the thermal and additive treatments. Under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 G, the best PCE of 6.6% was achieved for a PFehTTBT:PC71BM device with an open-circuit voltage of 0.92 V, a short-circuit current of 15.1 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.48. These results suggest that it is useful to disrupt partially the interchain organizations of excessively crystalline polymers, enabling fine-control of intermolecular ordering and the morphological properties (i.e., miscibility with fullerene derivatives, etc.) to utilize the advantages of both crystalline and amorphous materials for further improving PCE of polymer solar cells. (Chemical Equation Presented).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20510-20518
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 26
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 American Chemical Society.


  • Conjugated polymer
  • Fluorene
  • Noncovalent coulomb interaction
  • Photovoltaic polymer
  • Polymer solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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