An improved matrix encoding scheme for JPEG steganography

Vasily Sachnev, Hyoung Joong Kim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an efficient JPEG steganography method based on improved matrix encoding. Compared to the original matrix encoding (ME), the proposed improved matrix encoding uses two intersected ME blocks of the DCT coefficients as a single combined block. We propose a way to get a join solution of the two intersected ME, such that the intersected area does not affect the result. Due to intersection the improved matrix encoding may use a matrix encoding scheme with higher embedding rate. In order to survive steganalysis we hides data to DCT coefficients which cause the lowest distortion after modification. We used the original bitmap image for computing the distortion and getting the modified JPEG image. The proposed insert-remove strategy modifies the input stream of the DCT coefficients by inserting or removing coefficients 1 or -1. Any insertion and removing results the different solutions for the improved matrix encoding. Among all possible solutions the proposed method chooses solution with the lowest distortion. Such method significantly increases the number of possible solutions and, as a result, decreases the total distortion after data hiding. The experiments include the steganalysis of the proposed improved matrix encoding with and without using the insert-remove strategy. The experiment results shows that the proposed methods has lower detectability of the steganalysis compared to the existing steganographic methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDigital-Forensics and Watermarking - 10th International Workshop, IWDW 2011, Revised Selected Papers
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Event10th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2011 - Atlantic City, NJ, United States
Duration: 2011 Oct 232011 Oct 26

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume7128 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other10th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityAtlantic City, NJ


  • Matrix encoding
  • steganography
  • undetectable data hiding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'An improved matrix encoding scheme for JPEG steganography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this