An Inverted Layer-by-Layer Process to Enable Ultrasmooth MXene–Ag Nanowire Hybrid Electrode for Organic Photovoltaics

Eul Yong Shin, Su Bin Choi, Jong Ho Lee, Byungwook Yoo, Chul Jong Han, So Hyun Park, Jun Hong Noh, Jong Woong Kim, Hae Jung Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


To realize flexible and wearable electronic devices in the future, it is important to develop flexible transparent electrodes while replacing indium tin oxide-based transparent electrodes. Herein, a highly conductive transparent electrode based on hybrid materials of MXene nanosheet films and Ag nanowires (AgNWs) is reported, which synergistically combines the advantageous properties of each material. MXene/AgNW/colorless polyimide (cPI) hybrid electrode is prepared utilizing reverse sequential processing of MXene nanosheets and AgNWs and exhibits significantly improved conductivity and transmittance compared with the MXene/cPI electrode. Furthermore, owing to the abundant hydrophilic termination groups (-O and -OH) on the MXene surface, the MXene/AgNW/cPI hybrid electrode shows hydrophilic surface properties and a highly uniform film. Therefore, the MXene/AgNW/cPI hybrid electrode exhibits higher transmittance at 550 nm to 79% than MXene/cPI electrode (59%) and considerably lower sheet resistance (13.08 ohm sq−1) than MXene/cPI electrode (113.6 ohm sq−1). Flexible organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with MXene/AgNW/cPI hybrid electrode achieve higher power conversion efficiency of 10.3% compared with 6.70% of the corresponding MXene/cPI electrode. These results provide the great potential of Ti3C2-based MXene hybrid electrode as a flexible transparent electrode, paving the way for various and wider range of applications include solar cells and light-emitting diodes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2201130
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2023 May

Bibliographical note

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© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • Ag nanowires
  • MXenes
  • hybrid electrodes
  • layer-by-layer processes
  • organic photovoltaics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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