Analysis of a Multiwire, Multilevel, and Symbol Correlation Combination Scheme

Jonghyuck Choi, Yoonjae Choi, Hyunsu Park, Jincheol Sim, Youngwook Kwon, Seungwoo Park, Chulwoo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The required data rate of wireline communications has increased; however, channel attenuation limits the data bandwidth. Bit-efficient signaling is an effective and efficient solution because more data can be transmitted at the same Nyquist frequency. Several methods for increasing bit efficiency, such as multi-wire signaling, multi-level signaling, and symbol correlation schemes, have been proposed. Each scheme can generate additional codes by encoding the data. Additional codes can be used to transmit more data or to embed data transitions. In this study, the aforementioned schemes are analyzed, and a method is developed to combine them, maximize the bit efficiency, and ensure the data transition density. For the prototype transceiver, a 4-wire PAM-3 (4W3P) signaling scheme was adopted. The 4W3P signaling scheme can increase the bit efficiency to 200% while maintaining the DC-balanced characteristics. Transceiver building blocks, such as the TX driver, feed-forward equalizer, and analog front-end, were optimized for the proposed signaling scheme. The prototype transceiver was fabricated using 28 nm CMOS technology, occupying 0.012 mm2. The RX was measured using the TX and achieved a BER less than 10-12 at 40 Gb/s over the four wires, with a total transceiver energy efficiency of 1.52 pJ/bit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3416-3427
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Institute of Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2022-0-01171)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2004-2012 IEEE.


  • Bit-efficient signaling
  • DC-balanced signaling
  • clock-embedded signaling (CES)
  • feed-forward equalizer (FFE)
  • multi-level signaling
  • multi-wire signaling
  • pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
  • symbol correlation
  • transition density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Analysis of a Multiwire, Multilevel, and Symbol Correlation Combination Scheme'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this