Anatomical basis of pronator teres for electromyography needle placement using ultrasonography

Myung Kyu Park, In Yae Cheong, Ki Hoon Kim, Byung Kyu Park, Dong Hwee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To find the optimal needle insertion site for needle electromyography of the pronator teres (PT) muscle among commonly used sites. Methods: Fifty forearms of 25 healthy subjects were evaluated. Four expected needle insertion points were designated as follows. Point 0 was positioned at the midpoint between the medial epicondyle and medial border of biceps tendon in the elbow crease. Points 1, 2, and 3 were located 2 cm, 3.5 cm and 5 cm distal to point 0, respectively. We assumed that the thickness of PT and the distances between a vertical line from each point to the medial margin of the PT were significant parameters for finding the optimal site. Thus, we measured these parameters through ultrasonographic examination. Results: In men, the PT was thickest at point 2, and in women, at point 1. The distance between the expected needle insertion line and medial margin of PT was longest at point 1 in both men and women, and was statistically significant compared to points 2 and 3. Both men and women had neurovascular bundles located lateral to the expected needle insertion line. Conclusion: The most appropriate and safe needle electromyographic insertional site for the PT is 2-3.5 cm distal to the mid-point between the biceps tendon and medial epicondyle in the elbow crease and the needle should be inserted upward and medial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-46
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 by Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine.


  • Electromyography
  • Forearm
  • Ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Anatomical basis of pronator teres for electromyography needle placement using ultrasonography'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this