Ionogels are emerging materials for advanced electrochemical devices; however, their mechanical instability to external stresses has raised concerns about their safety. This study reports aligned bacterial nanocellulose (BC) ionogel films swelled with the model ionic liquid (IL) of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) for an unprecedented combination of high stiffness and high energy dissipation without significant loss of ionic conductivity. The aligned BC ionogel films are prepared through wet-state stretching methods, followed by drying and swelling by ILs. The aligned ionogel films exhibit significantly improved dynamic mechanical properties, overcoming the mechanical conventional limit of traditional materials by 2.0 times at 25 °C and by a maximum of 4.0 times at 0 °C. Additionally, the same samples exhibit relatively high ionic conductivities of 0.16 mS cm-1at 20 °C and 0.45 mS cm-1at 60 °C with storage moduli over 10 GPa. The synergistic effect of the mechanical reinforcements by alignment of the BC nanofibers and the plasticizing effects by ILs could be attributed to the significant enhancement of dynamic mechanical properties and the retention of ionic conductivities. These results will lead to a deeper understanding of the material design for mechanically superior ionogel systems with increasing demands for advanced electronic and electrochemical devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science and ICT) (nos. NRF-2021R1A2C4002523 and NRF-2022R1A5A1032539). This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (no. 20202020800330).
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- bacterial nanocellulose
- dynamic mechanical property
- ionic conductivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Materials Science