Anti-inflammatory effect of sugar-amino acid Maillard reaction products on intestinal inflammation model in vitro and in vivo

Jun Gu Oh, Su Hyun Chun, Da Hyun Kim, Jin Hye Kim, Hye Soo Shin, Yong Soo Cho, Yong Ki Kim, Hee don Choi, Kwang Won Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The Maillard reaction is a nonenzymatic reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar that usually occurs upon heating. This reaction occurs routinely in cooking, generates numerous products, which are collectively referred to as Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contributing to aroma and color features. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) transformed from MRPs are participated in many types of inflammation reaction. In this study, various sugar-amino acid MRPs were prepared from three different amino acids (lysine, arginine, and glycine) and sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) for 1 h with heating at 121 °C. Treatment of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages with the MRPs decreased nitric oxide (NO) expression compared to control without MRPs treatment. MRPs derived from lysine and galactose (Lys-Gal MRPs) significantly inhibited NO expression. The retentate fraction of Lys-Gal MRPs with cut-off of molecular weight of 3–10 kDa (LGCM) suppressed NO expression more effectively than did Lys-Gal MRPs. The anti-inflammatory effect of LGCM was evaluated using a co-culture system consisting of Caco-2 (apical side) and RAW264.7 or THP-1 (basolateral side) cells to investigate the gut inflammation reaction by stimulated macrophage cells. In this system, LGCM prevented a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance, and decreased both tumor necrosis factor-α production in macrophages and interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. In co-culture and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model study, we also observed the anti-inflammatory activity of LGCM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-58
Number of pages12
JournalCarbohydrate Research
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a Korea University Grant (K1505951) and Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET 314046-3). This study was also supported by School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS (T1400083), Korea University. The authors thank the Korea University-CJ Food Safety Center (Seoul, South Korea) for providing the equipment and facilities.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017


  • Anti-inflammation
  • Co-culture
  • Sugar-amino acid MRP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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