Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Essential Oils from the Peels of Citrus Cultivars

Jiyoon Yang, Su Yeon Lee, Soo Kyeong Jang, Ki Joong Kim, Mi Jin Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Citrus cultivars have remarkable health benefits, but only the anti-inflammatory activities of the major varieties have been studied. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of various citrus cultivars and their active anti-inflammatory components. The essential oils of 21 citrus peels were extracted via hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed. D-Limonene was the most abundant constituent. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the citrus cultivars, the gene expression levels of an inflammatory mediator and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. Among the 21 essential oils, those extracted from C. japonica and C. maxima exhibited superior anti-inflammatory activities, being able to inhibit the expression of the inflammatory mediators and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The essential oils of C. japonica and C. maxima were distinguished into seven distinct constituents, α-pinene, myrcene, D-limonene, β-ocimene, linalool, linalool oxide, and α-terpineol, compared with other essential oils. The anti-inflammatory activities of the seven single compounds significantly inhibited the levels of inflammation-related factors. In particular, α-terpineol exhibited a superior anti-inflammatory effect. This study showed that the essential oils from C. japonica and C. maxima exhibit high anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, α-terpineol is an active anti-inflammatory compound that contributes to inflammatory responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1595
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the National Institute of Forest Science (grant number FP0701-2021-01-2023).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • active compound
  • anti-inflammatory
  • bioactivity
  • citrus
  • essential oil
  • in vitro screening
  • natural compound
  • terpenes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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