PURPOSE: To report antielevation syndrome with restriction of elevation on abduction in the operated eye and overaction (OA) of the inferior oblique muscle (IO) of the contralateral eye after unilateral IO anteriorization (AT). METHODS: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in 8 of 24 patients who underwent unilateral IOAT. Four patients were referred from other hospitals after the same surgery. RESULTS: Four patients had infantile esotropes. The rest showed accommodative esotropia, superior oblique palsy, exotropia, and consecutive exotropia. The mean amount of hyperdeviation was 16.3 PD (10 approximately 30). The mean restriction of elevation on abduction in the operated eye was -1.6 (-1 approximately -4) and IOOA of the contralateral eye was +2.7 (+2 approximately +3). IOAT of nonoperated eyes in 4 patients, IO weakening procedure of anteriorized eyes in 2 patients, and IO myectomy on an eye with IOAT in 1 patient were performed. Ocular motility was improved after surgery in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral IOAT may result in antielevation syndrome. Therefore bilateral IOAT is recommended to balance antielevation in both eyes. A meticulous caution is needed when performing unilateral IOAT.
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