This study describes the successful synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compounds with biodegradable and injectable properties and demonstrates that the kinetics of NO release vary according to the type of NO donor. The antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing compounds against three common periodontal pathogens, i.e., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Actinomyces israelii, was investigated using a susceptibility assay. Human gingival fibroblasts were treated with NO-releasing compounds at the minimum concentrations required for bacterial growth and cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT cell proliferation assay. Our results suggest that NO-releasing compounds can be used topically to treat both gram-negative and gram-positive periodontal pathogens. Comparison of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity assay results between the NO-releasing compounds revealed that an NO donor comprising a macromolecule without surface charge, a lower instantaneous NO concentration, and an adequate supply of NO were associated with a strong bactericidal effect and low cytotoxicity. NO-releasing compounds with these properties may be suitable for treatment of periodontitis.
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© 2018 Shim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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