Chestnut inner shell (CIS) was fermented at 30 °C for 12 day using Monascus kaoliang, either in solid or submerged state, and alcohol extracts (70% ethanol) of the fermented CIS were examined for their antioxidant (total phenol content and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity) and in vitro cosmeceutical activities (tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities). Both activities were significantly increased by the M. kaoliang-fermentation, more apparently by submerged fermentation (SMF) than by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The cosmeceutical activity reached its maximum value on the 3rd day of fermentation. The residual amounts of phenolic acids and catechins in the CIS extracts were increased by the fermentation, up to 395.0 and 344.3 µg/g, respectively. More phenolic acids were produced by SMF than SSF, whereas more catechins were produced by SSF than SMF. Therefore, SMF using M. kaoliang was an efficient process for the utilization of CIS as a source of cosmeceuticals.
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© 2022, The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.
- Chestnut inner shell
- Elastase inhibitory activity
- Monascus kaoliang
- Tyrosinase inhibitory activity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology