Apoptotic changes in a full-lengthened immobilization model of rat soleus muscle

Hye Rim Suh, Eui Ho Park, Sun Wook Moon, Ji Won Kim, Hwi Young Cho, Hee Chul Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Lengthened immobilization may prevent muscle shortening, and help maintain normal muscle length. However, its apoptotic effects remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of long-term immobilization on apoptotic proteins. Methods: Rat soleus muscles were immobilized by casting in a neutral (NEUT) or lengthened (LENG) position for 21 days. We evaluated dynamic weight load and muscle atrophy following the 21-day period using hematoxylin and eosin staining. We measured Bax (pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member), MyoD (myogenic differentiation factor D), MYH (myosin heavy chain), and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase levels and examined apoptotic nucleus expression. Results: Decreased dynamic weight load and muscle atrophy changes were observed in LENG. Both NEUT and LENG showed significantly reduced levels of MYH. LENG showed a significant increase in Bax and MyoD expression as well as in the number of apoptotic nuclei. Conclusions: Long-term lengthened immobilization may increase apoptotic changes and decrease muscle formation proteins in muscle. Muscle Nerve 59:263–269, 2019.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-269
Number of pages7
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Abbreviations: Acyp2, acylphosphatase-2; ANOVA, analysis of variance; BAX, pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member; CONT, naïve rats; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidine-2-phenylidole-dihydrochloride; HDAC6, histone deacety-lase 6; INrf2, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; LENG, lengthened immobilization; MYH, myosin heavy chain; MyoD, myogenic differentiation factor D; NEUT, neutral angle (= 0°) immobilization; PARP, poly (ADP-ribose)polymerase; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; RT, room temperature; SLC25A4, solute carrier family 25, member 4; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) –mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling Key words: apoptosis, Bax, casting, lengthened immobilization, lengthening, soleus Funding: This research was supported by grants from the Chung Yang, Cha Young Sun & Jang Hi Joo Memorial Fund (Grant 20140101) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (Grant 2017R1D1A1B03030568 to H.-R.S.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


  • Bax
  • apoptosis
  • casting
  • lengthened immobilization
  • lengthening
  • soleus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


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