Benzalkonium compounds are widely used and found in environmental samples. Due to their amphiphilic nature, it is important to know sorption coefficients to account their bioavailability. However, currently available models describing their partitioning were developed using low molecular weight homologues and it cannot be ascertained whether they are applicable to their higher molecular weight homologues. Reasons for the scarcity of data on highly sorptive compounds include the lack of reliable quantification techniques for analyzing these chemicals at environmentally relevant levels. This study, therefore, reports on an algal growth inhibition assay-based method for the determination of kaolinite/water distribution coefficients for benzalkonium compounds at their environmentally relevant concentration range. Sorption to clay was computed using the difference between median effective concentration determined in a culture with kaolinite and that derived from a culture grown in standard medium. A kinetic model was used to account for uptake into algal cells and to calculate free concentrations. Due to the sensitivity of the algal species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it was possible to determine distribution coefficients below micromole per liter concentrations. The computed distribution coefficients showed a linear increase with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain up to 14. The proposed bioassay-based method should be applicable to determine distribution coefficients for highly hydrophobic chemicals and ionic liquids at a concentration range lower than typical analytical limits.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was partly supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment ( MOE ) as “Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management” ( 2018002490001 ). MN was supported by the Korean Government Scholarship Program .
This research was partly supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as “Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management” (2018002490001). MN was supported by the Korean Government Scholarship Program.
- Algal growth inhibition
- Organic cation
- Sorption coefficient
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis