Application of optimized time domain reflectometry probe for estimating contaminants in saline soil

Dongsoo Lee, Jong Sub Lee, Yong Hoon Byun, Sang Yeob Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Monitoring contaminants in waste landfills on a seabed is important because the leachate affects the marine ecosystem and facility stability. The objective of this study is to optimize a time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probe using different coating materials and several electrodes to estimate contaminants in saline soil. Copper concentrations ranging from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L were mixed in 3% salinity water to simulate contaminants in the ocean environment. Epoxy, top-coat, and varnish were used as coating materials, and two to seven electrodes were prepared to vary the number and arrangement of the electrodes. Test results showed that the varnish stably captured the increase in copper concentration, while the other coating materials became insensitive or caused leakage current. In addition, a TDR probe with more electrodes exhibited stable and distinct electromagnetic signals. Thus, the TDR probe with seven electrodes coated with varnish was effectively used to estimate contaminants in saline soil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
JournalGeomechanics and Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023 May 10

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2021R1A5A1032433; NRF-2021R1C1C2008932).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Techno-Press, Ltd.


  • coating materials
  • copper concentration
  • electrodes
  • final converged voltage
  • time domain reflectometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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