Assessment of chronological effects of irreversible electroporation on hilar bile ducts in a porcine model

Jae Woong Choi, David S.K. Lu, Ferdnand Osuagwu, Steven Raman, Charles Lassman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate the chronological effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on large hilar bile ducts in an in vivo porcine model correlated with computed tomography (CT) cholangiography and histopathology. Materials and Methods: Twelve IRE zones were made along hilar bile ducts intraoperatively under ultrasound (US)-guidance in 11 pigs. Paired electrodes were placed either on opposing sides of the bile duct (straddle [STR]) or both on one side of the bile duct (one-sided [OSD]). The shortest electrode-to-duct distance was classified as periductal (≤2 mm) or nonperiductal (>2 mm). CT cholangiography and laboratory tests were performed before IRE and again at 2 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after IRE. Degree of bile duct injury were graded as follows: grade 0 = no narrowing; grade 1 = ≤50 % duct narrowing; grade 2 = >50 % narrowing without proximal duct dilatation; grade 3 = grade 2 with proximal duct dilatation; and grade 4 = grade 3 with enzyme elevation. Pigs were selected for killing and histopathology at 2 days, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: Nonperiductal electrode placement produced no long-term strictures in 5 of 5 ducts. Periductal electrode placement produced mild narrowing in 6 of 7 ducts: 5 grade 1 and 1 grade 2. None showed increased enzymes. There was no significant difference between STR versus OSD electrode placement. Histopathology showed minor but relatively greater ductal mural changes in narrowed ducts. Conclusion: In the larger hilar ducts, long-term patency and mural integrity appear resistant to IRE damage with the energy deposition used, especially if the electrode is not immediately periductal in position.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-230
Number of pages7
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
David S. K. Lu is a consultant for and the recipient of a grant from Ethicon Endosurgery, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

Funding Information:
This project was funded in part by Ethicon Endosurgery Inc., Cincinnati, OH.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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