Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: A validation study of the Korean DS14

Hong Euy Lim, Moon Soo Lee, Young Hoon Ko, Young Min Park, Sook Haeng Joe, Yong Ku Kim, Changsu Han, Hwa Young Lee, Susanne S. Pedersen, Johan Denollet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Korean medical science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Anxiety
  • Coronary disease
  • DS14
  • Depression
  • Hypertension
  • Type D personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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