Association of fasting plasma glucose variability with gestational diabetes mellitus: A nationwide population-based cohort study

Jung A. Kim, Jinsil Kim, Eun Roh, So Hyeon Hong, You Bin Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective Long-term glycemic variability has recently been recognized as another risk factor for future adverse health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to the prepregnancy long-term fasting plasma glucose (FPG) variability. Research design and methods A total of 164 053 women who delivered their first baby between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015, were selected from the Korean National Health Insurance data. All women underwent at least three national health screening examinations, and the last examination should be conducted within 2 years before their first delivery. GDM was defined as the presence of more than four times of claim of GDM (International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10) O24.4 and O24.9) or prescription of insulin under the ICD-code of GDM. FPG variability was assessed by variability independent of the mean (FPG-VIM), coefficient of variation, SD, and average successive variability. Results Among the 164 053 women, GDM developed in 6627 (4.04%). Those in the higher quartiles of FPG-VIM showed a stepwise increased risk of GDM. In fully adjusted model, the ORs for GDM was 1.22 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.31) in women with the highest FPG-VIM quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile. The risk for GDM requiring insulin therapy was 48% increase in women in the highest quartile of FPG-VIM compared with those in the lowest quartile, while that for GDM not requiring insulin therapy was 19% increase. The association between high FPG variability and the risk of GDM was intensified in the obese and aged more than 35 years women. Conclusions Increased FPG variability in the prepregnancy state is associated with the risk of GDM independent of confounding factors. Therefore, prepregnancy FPG variability might be a surrogate marker of the risk of GDM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere001084
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr 22

Bibliographical note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • gestational diabetes mellitus
  • glucose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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