Background: The relationship between periodontitis and hypertension remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of periodontitis, missing teeth, and oral hygiene behaviors with the incidence of hypertension. Methods: A total of 104,349 participants were selected from the National Health Insurance System-Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort. Incident hypertension and periodontitis were diagnosed based on the patients’ clinical records and health examinations. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, coexisting disease, and health behaviors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 51.1 years (range, 40–79 years) at baseline, and 55.1% were men. A total of 52,855 incident hypertension cases were identified during the median follow-up period of 9.6 years. Among the participants, periodontitis (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.00–1.04), number of missing teeth (for ≥15 group, HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29–1.52), dental scaling (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91–0.95), and toothbrushing frequency (for ≥3 group, HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.83–0.88) were significantly associated with incident hypertension after full adjustments for covariates. While periodontitis was significantly associated with incident hypertension (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02–1.06) in the middle-aged group (40–64 years), the effect was insignificant in the older group (≥65 years). Conclusions: Oral inflammation could contribute to the incidence of hypertension; thus, efforts to reduce oral inflammation should be encouraged. Future intervention studies are warranted to determine whether oral health care could be beneficial in the management of hypertension.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a Korea University Grant (K1916931). The authors appreciate the National Health Insurance System in Korea for providing permission to use the National Health Insurance Service‐Health Screening Cohort data.
© 2022 American Academy of Periodontology.
- oral hygiene
- periodontal diseases
- periodontal–systemic interactions
ASJC Scopus subject areas