Association of sodium excretion with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and body fat

Se Won Oh, Kum Hyun Han, Sang Youb Han, Ho Seok Koo, Suhnggwon Kim, Ho Jun Chin

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58 Citations (Scopus)


Sodium intake was reported to be related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Although a strong association between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) has been reported, the relationship between sodium intake and other components of MS is unknown. An observational study of 18,146 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011) was performed. Estimates of 24-h sodium excretion were made from a single fasting urine sample. A significant positive association was found between sodium excretion and systolic BP and between sodium excretion and diastolic BP in participants with and without hypertension after adjusting for multiple covariates (P<0.001 for trend). The relationship between triglyceride or glucose levels and sodium excretion was linear (P<0.005). In both men and women, a positive relationship between sodium excretion and waist circumference and an inverse relationship between sodium excretion and high-density lipoprotein were found (P≤ 0.001). Body fat percentage, body fat mass, and insulin level were positively related to sodium excretion (P ≤ 0.001), and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with sodium excretion (P<0.05). The risk of MS was elevated 1.279-fold in the second quartile of sodium excretion (95% CI, 1.088-1.504, P=0.003), 1.479-fold in the third quartile (95% CI, 1.262-1.734; P<0.001), and 1.929-fold in the highest quartile (95% CI 1.654-2.249, P<0.001) compared with the lowest quartile. Sodium intake is significantly associated with all components of MS, body fat, and insulin resistance. Therefore, a high-salt diet is a significant risk factor for MS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e1650
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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