Associations of exposure to phthalates and environmental phenols with gynecological disorders

Jangwoo Lee, Yunsun Jeong, Sori Mok, Kyungho Choi, Jeongim Park, Hyo Bang Moon, Gyuyeon Choi, Hai Joong Kim, Su Young Kim, Soo Ran Choi, Sungkyoon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Phthalates and environmental phenols might be associated with some benign diseases that have been found to be hormone-sensitive. Current knowledge on adverse effects of these chemicals among reproductive women is limited and often controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the urinary concentration of phthalates and environmental phenols and gynecological disorders from 512 women of reproductive age. The association between chemical concentration and disease in the control and case groups was statistically determined with the questionnaire survey data and measurements using the LC–MS/MS. The results have shown that DEHP metabolites, ethyl paraben and 3,4-DHB showed significant direct associations with leiomyoma and benign ovarian tumors (p < 0.05). We found statistically significant positive relationships between exposure to chemicals (some DEHP metabolites, DHB) and prevalence of gynecologic disorders (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the ORs for leiomyoma associated with these compounds in always user for personal care products (PCPs) was higher than those of sometimes user. High levels of urinary concentrations of these compounds such as DEHP metabolites and parabens and their metabolites showed significant associations with leiomyoma and benign ovarian tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-28
Number of pages10
JournalReproductive Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Benign diseases
  • Environmental phenols
  • Personal care products
  • Phthalates
  • Women of reproductive age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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