AutoThinking: An Adaptive Computational Thinking Game

Danial Hooshyar, Heuiseok Lim, Margus Pedaste, Kisu Yang, Moein Fathi, Yeongwook Yang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

24 Citations (Scopus)


Computational thinking (CT) is gaining recognition as an important skill set for students, both in computer science and other disciplines. Digital computer games have proven to be attractive and engaging for fostering CT. Even though there are a number of promising studies of games that teach CT, most of these do not consider whether students are learning CT skills or adapt to individual players’ needs. Instead, they boost theoretical knowledge and promote student motivation in CT by usually following a computer-assisted instruction concept that is predefined and rigid, offering no adaptability to each student. To overcome such problems, by benefiting from a probabilistic model that deals with uncertainty, Bayesian Network (BN), we propose an adaptive CT game called AutoThinking. It seeks to engage players through personalized and fun game play while offering timely visualized hints, feedback, and tutorials which cues players to learn skills and concepts tailored to their abilities. The application of BN to AutoThinking not only adaptively provides multiple descriptions of learning materials (by offering adaptive textual, graphical, and video tutorials), similar to the natural way that teachers use in classrooms, but also creatively integrates adaptivity within gameplay by directing the cats (non-player characters) to a specific zone on the game according to players’ ability. Consequently, these adaptive features enable AutoThinking to engage players in an individually tailored gameplay and instill CT concepts and skills.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInnovative Technologies and Learning - 2nd International Conference, ICITL 2019, Proceedings
EditorsLisbet Rønningsbakk, Ting-Ting Wu, Frode Eika Sandnes, Yueh-Min Huang
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9783030353421
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event2nd International Conference on Innovative Technologies and Learning, ICITL 2019 - Tromsø, Norway
Duration: 2019 Dec 22019 Dec 5

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume11937 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference2nd International Conference on Innovative Technologies and Learning, ICITL 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments. This research was partly supported by the European Regional Development Fund through the University of Tartu project ASTRA per ASPERA.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.


  • Adaptive educational game
  • Adaptive tutorials
  • Bayesian network
  • Computational thinking
  • Timely visualized feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • General Computer Science


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