Back surface field properties with different surface conditions for crystalline silicon solar cells

Hyunho Kim, Seongtak Kim, Sungeun Park, Jooyong Song, Young Do Kim, Sung Ju Tark, Soonwoo Kwon, Sewang Yoon, Chang Sik Son, Donghwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To reduce manufacturing costs of crystalline silicon solar cells, silicon wafers have become thinner. In relation to this, the properties of the aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF) are considered an important factor in solar cell performance. Generally, screen-printing and a rapid thermal process (RTP) are utilized together to form the Al-BSF. This study evaluates Al-BSF formation on a (111) textured back surface compared with a (100) flat back surface with variation of ramp up rates from 18 to 89°C/s for the RTP annealing conditions. To make different back surface morphologies, one side texturing using a silicon nitride film and double side texturing were carried out. After aluminium screen-printing, Al-BSF formed according to the RTP annealing conditions. A metal etching process in hydrochloric acid solution was carried out to assess the quality of Al-BSF. Saturation currents were calculated by using quasi-steady-state photoconductance. The surface morphologies observed by scanning electron microscopy and a non-contacting optical profiler. Also, sheet resistances and bulk carrier concentration were measured by a 4-point probe and hall measurement system. From the results, a faster ramp up during Al-BSF formation yielded better quality than a slower ramp up process due to temperature uniformity of silicon and the aluminium surface. Also, in the Al-BSF formation process, the (111) textured back surface is significantly affected by the ramp up rates compared with the (100) flat back surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-249
Number of pages7
JournalKorean Journal of Materials Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Back surface field (BSF)
  • Flat back surface
  • Ramp up rates
  • Silicon solar cells
  • Textured back surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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