Balancing Body based and Discrete Interaction for Usability and Presence in Virtual Reality

Yongjae Lee, Gerard J. Kim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


As the major goal of virtual reality (VR) is to provide enriched experience, motion based interface involving many parts of the body, if not the whole, is often employed. On the other hand, in general, the more body parts involved and active the interaction becomes, the less usable and more tiring the user can feel, and the more space the system can require. This in turn can even reversely affect the total experience in the negative way. In this paper, we explore whether it might be possible to convey the rich active VR experience while maintaining some minimum level of usability, by considering the extent of the of body involvement in the VR interaction. We compare six different styles of interaction in terms of their usability and experience in a simple virtual tennis application: one that uses the whole body (both upper and lower body), one that uses only the discrete input interaction device, and four others that use varied degrees of the body and device. Our experiment has shown that compared to the full body interaction, part body interaction showed comparable level of immersion, presence and active experience, while incurring a similarly low level of fatigue of the full interaction device based interaction. Constraining the active VR interface to the upper body without sacrificing the level of experience this way has an added advantage of less operating space. We believe that this investigation can serve as a guideline for VR interaction design that employs body based action interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - Web3D 2020
Subtitle of host publication25th ACM Conference on 3D Web Technology
EditorsStephen N. Spencer
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery, Inc
ISBN (Electronic)9781450381697
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 9
Event25th ACM Conference on 3D Web Technology, Web3D 2020 - Virtual, Online, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 2020 Nov 92020 Nov 13

Publication series

NameProceedings - Web3D 2020: 25th ACM Conference on 3D Web Technology


Conference25th ACM Conference on 3D Web Technology, Web3D 2020
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant No. NRF-2017M3C1B6070977).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 ACM.


  • Usability
  • User experience
  • Virtual reality
  • Whole body interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Software


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