Balancing Power and Rate Control for Improved Congestion Control in Cellular V2X Communication Environments

Yeomyung Yoon, Hyogon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2945/1 standard prescribes a wireless channel congestion control algorithm for periodic Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) in vehicular safety communication. The algorithm is designed to work with the Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology as the radio interface, and utilizes transmit (Tx) power control and rate control elements for the periodic BSM transmissions, which are supposed to work in a complementary manner. An equivalent standard is being made for the cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication environment, and it is expected that the J2945/1 congestion control algorithm will be reused. Unfortunately, we find that when transplanted to the C-V2X communication environment, the J2945/1 algorithm exhibits a poor balance between the two control elements under congestion. Specifically, the Tx rate control is pushed to its limit much earlier than the Tx power control. We believe that this is due to the new relation formed between the respective inputs to the control elements, channel busy ratio (CBR) and the vehicle density (VD), induced by the different radio technology used in the C-V2X communication. The consequence of the unbalanced control dynamics is the degraded update delay of neighboring vehicles' kinematics due to the over-exerted rate control, which potentially undermines the driving safety. In this paper, we propose to adjust the rate control function to react to congestion in a more relaxed manner so that the power control contributes more actively to the overall congestion control. With the re-balancing between the control elements, we show that the update delay improves, where larger improvements are obtained in closer, more safety-critical distances from the BSM transmitter. We believe that in future efforts to define the standard congestion control algorithm for the C-V2X environment, the balanced control aspect as explored in this paper should be considered in the design phase.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9108254
Pages (from-to)105071-105081
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) grant funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Grant 20CTAP-C151975-02).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • SAE J2945/1 standard
  • Tx power control
  • Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication
  • congestion control
  • driving safety
  • rate control
  • update delay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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