Batch and continuous synthesis of lactulose from whey lactose by immobilized β-galactosidase

Yoon Seok Song, Hee Uk Lee, Chulhwan Park, Seung Wook Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, lactulose synthesis from whey lactose was investigated in batch and continuous systems using immobilized β-galactosidase. In the batch system, the optimal concentration of fructose for lactulose synthesis was 20%, and the effect of galactose, glucose and fructose on β-galactosidase activity was determined for hydrolysis of whey lactose and the transgalactosylation reaction for lactulose synthesis. Galactose and fructose were competitive inhibitors, and glucose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. The inhibitory effects of galactose and glucose were stronger in the transgalactosylation reaction than they were in the hydrolysis reaction. In addition, when immobilized β-galactosidase was reused for lactulose synthesis, its catalytic activity was retained to the extent of 52.9% after 10 reuses. Lactulose was synthesized continuously in a packed-bed reactor. We synthesized 19.1 g/l lactulose during the continuous flow reaction at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-694
Number of pages6
JournalFood Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jan 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by Technology Development Program ( 309016-5 ) for Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea and the Advanced Biomass R&D Center ( ABC-2010-0029799 ) of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology .


  • Continuous process
  • Lactulose
  • Transgalactosylation
  • Whey
  • β-Galactosidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science


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