Belief Propagation for Energy Efficiency Maximization in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

Sang Hyun Lee, Mintae Kim, Hunmin Shin, Inkyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we study an energy efficient management of two-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which consist of one macro base station (BS) and multiple micro base stations. This article presents a distributed user association algorithm that maximizes the network-wide energy efficiency (EE) in HetNets. A subset of BSs that support only a small number of users can be turned off to save the energy consumption. By turning off BSs in the HetNet and offloading serving users to adjacent active BSs, the network-wide energy consumption is minimized, while the sum throughput is maximized. To solve the problem efficiently, we introduce a new approach based on a message-passing framework and derive a distributed load balancing algorithm. The proposed method provides a very efficient solution with reduced computational complexity compared to existing schemes. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm outperforms other conventional load balancing strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9199557
Pages (from-to)56-68
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received April 1, 2020; revised July 23, 2020; accepted September 5, 2020. Date of publication September 17, 2020; date of current version January 8, 2021. This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) under Grant 2017R1A2B3012316, in part by the Information Technology Research Center (ITRC) supervised by the Institute of Information Communications Technology Planning and Evaluation (IITP) under Program IITP-2020-0-01749, and in part by the Korea University Grant. The associate editor coordinating the review of this article and approving it for publication was J. Yang. (Corresponding author: Inkyu Lee.) Sang Hyun Lee, Mintae Kim, and Inkyu Lee are with the School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea (e-mail:;;

Publisher Copyright:
© 2002-2012 IEEE.


  • Energy-efficiency maximization
  • belief propagation
  • wireless heterogeneous networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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