(E)-3,4-Dihydroxybenzylideneacetone (compound 1) inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis of C57BL/6 bone marrow monocyte/macrophages with IC50 of 7.8 μM (IC50 of alendronate, 3.7 μM) while stimulating the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, accompanied by the induction of Runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. (E)-4-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (compound 2c) showed a dramatically increased osteoclast-inhibitory potency with IC50 of 0.11 μM while sustaining osteoblast-stimulatory activity. (E)-4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (compound 2g) stimulated alkaline phosphatase production 2-fold at 50 μM without changing osteoclast-inhibitory activity, compared with compound 1. Oral administration of compounds 1, 2c, and 2g prevented ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in ddY mice to a degree proportional to their osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory potencies. The administration of 1 (mg/kg)/d compound 2c ameliorated histomorphometry of osteoporotic bone to a degree comparable with 10 (mg/kg)/d alendronate. Conclusively, the in vitro capacity of a few benzylideneacetone derivatives to inhibit osteoclastogenesis supported by independent osteoblastogenesis activation was convincingly reflected in in vivo management of osteoporosis, suggesting a potential novel therapeutics for osteopenic diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The present research was supported by KUMC (Korea University Medical Center) Research and Business Foundation (Grant Q1611891), Korea University (Grant K1813041), and National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant 2017M3A9A8033561).
© 2019 American Chemical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery