Beta-phase transformation of polyvinylidene fluoride with supersonically sprayed ZnSnO3 cuboids for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators

Bhavana Joshi, Taegun Kim, Woojin Lim, Edmund Samuel, Chanwoo Park, Ali Aldalbahi, Mohamed El-Newehy, Hae Seok Lee, Seongpil An, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Flexible self-powered electromechanical devices, such as piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs), which are used in wearable and implantable devices, are emerging as state-of-the-art clean energy sources. In this study, a scalable supersonic spraying technique was used to prepare flexible piezocomposite films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hydrothermally synthesized ZnSnO3 (ZSO) cubes for PENGs. Raman spectra confirmed that the transformation of the α-phase of PVDF to its β-phase was induced by the shear stress generated between the ZSO particles and PVDF polymer during supersonic spraying. The optimized sample comprising 0.43 g of ZSO cubes and 1 g of PVDF produced a maximum piezopotential of 41.5 V and a short-circuit current, Isc, of 52.5 μA. A maximum power density of 50.6 μW cm−2 was obtained at a loading resistance of 0.4 MΩ, which matched the impedance of the PENG. Long-term tapping and bending cycles of Ntap = 4200 and Nbend = 600 yielded piezopotentials of 40.5 and 1.7 V, respectively. In addition, electrical poling for 2 h increased the piezopotential to 52 V owing to the alignment of the ferroelectric dipoles in the PVDF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-113
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Materials Science and Technology
Volume177
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023

Keywords

  • Composite
  • PVDF
  • Perovskite
  • Piezoelectric nanogenerator
  • Supersonic cold spray
  • ZnSnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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